The Influence of the Arab Spring on Egypt


The entire international community followed the events in Egypt during the Arab Spring. The main cause of unrests in January 2011 was the socio-political system formed in Egypt in the second half of the 20th century...

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Abstract

The entire international community followed the events in Egypt during the Arab Spring. The main cause of unrests in January 2011 was the socio-political system formed in Egypt in the second half of the 20th century. People wanted to change the ruling elite in their country. At the same time, it is evident that the undisputed victim of the Arab Spring was the economy of Egypt. It is not surprising since it is a known fact that the social revolution always entails a fairly long period of economic decline and reduces the standard of living in the country. These days, the Egyptian economy experiences a critical period. There are different vies of experts regarding the causes of the economic decline in Egypt. Nevertheless, the majority of specialists associate the current situation in the country with the events occurred during the Arab Spring. It is associated with the fact that before the revolution, the economy of the state had been mainly based on the tourism sector. However, the situation changed greatly after the tragic events in 2011. In addition, subsequent protests only worsened the state of the country. However, the future of Egypt is still not defined. Thus, this paper allows examining thoroughly the causes and consequences of the Arab Spring in Egypt, as well studying predictions of the experts regarding economy of the state in the future.

Keywords: the Arab Spring, unrests, economy, tourism, protests

The Influence of the Arab Spring on Egypt        

Introduction

The end of 2011 and beginning of 2012 was the period of transformation in the Middle East. Mass anti-government demonstrations, protests, and demands for a better life captured the countries stretching from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. The Arab Republic of Egypt, which is the largest country in the Arab world and the most important political, intellectual, and cultural center, also intended to stand as a country that demanded democratic reforms. The events lasting for over two years in the country have not yet come to its logical conclusion. They cause a wide response in the region and the entire world. It is an evident fact that the changes in Egypt, which will also occur in the future, influence the situation not only in the region but also in the world. The subject of the research is the socio-economic and political situation in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Preconditions and causes of the crisis that have led to the change of the regime and contributed to the further development of the Arab Spring as well as the results of the current economic events occurring in the country serve as the object of the paper. The main purpose of the research is to analyze the political, economic, and social conditions in Egypt after the Arab Spring.

Data and Methods

Two years after the start of the Arab Spring, the future of the Arab Republic of Egypt also remains ambiguous and blurred. The authors of the book Economic and Social Development of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries stated that “the process of political and economic transition is far from cemplete”. Despite the fact that the military alliance of Islamists plays the major role in the political situation in Egypt, it has showed the inability to release the country from the protracted conflict at the moment. The lack of a clear program describing the action of the authorities and, moreover, the extrication of the country from the economic and social crisis also provokes unrest and protests. As this topic is highly complex, it is necessary to use reliable and authentic resources. The main sources to assist in writing the work are the data of American and foreign authors, the article reviewers specializing in the Middle East as well as the predictions of analysts. Moreover, the works of historians and experts in the Arab region help to understand the economic, political, and social problems in Egypt that led to their uprising. The main course of the events occurring over the past several years in Egypt is covered in the works of various economists. As a great number of different sources are used in the paper, it is an exploratory research written by the use of a qualitative method. The current research paper provides insights into the issue of the Arab Spring impact on the economic condition in the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Result and Analysis

Egypt is the country, which also participated in the events that began in the Arab world in late 2010, when the people of Tunisia, Algeria, and many other countries in the region went into the streets. They raised strike to express their governments a protest against the inefficiency of state institutions, which led to tension in the economic, social, and political life in certain Middle Eastern countries. These events had a great influence on many states. In the book Transformation processes in Egypt after 2011, is the authors noted that “even now, after only a few years, we can say without any exaggeration that the Arab Spring has been one of the most significant political and social events in recent years and decades, not only for the Middle East but for the whole world”. The Arab Spring affected many countries. At the beginning, many analysts predicted that there would be a domino effect, when the excitement would become increasingly widespread and, thus, a chain reaction would cover most part of the region. It is obvious that such predictions had a reason as social problems, unemployment, and corruption at all levels of the government as well as the lack of reforms were characteristics inherent in almost all Middle Eastern countries.

The Egyptian authorities also realized the possibility of developing circumstances in the country according to an inspiring example of Tunisia. Considering all the events occurring in the neighboring countries, active counter-propaganda was deployed, when the first people in the country tried to convince the entire population that application of the Tunisian scenario to overthrow the President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali for Egypt was wrong. In particular, Rachid Mohammed Rachid, currently ex-Minister of Trade and Industry of Egypt, stated that in Egypt, a system to address rising prices was debugged. According to him, more than 64 million people, the vast majority of the population, receive food stamps, which released the country from its dependence on the world oil prices. In addition, the head of the Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit categorically stated that the fears to experience again the Tunisian events in Egypt were only threats. However, the expectations of the Egyptian authorities did not materialize. Consequently, massive anti-government protests began in the country on 25 January 2011 in large cities such as Suez, Alexandria, and Cairo, which is rapidly spreading to the large areas of the country. The demonstrators, most were young people, demanded the abolition of the state of emergency that lasted for thirty years, freedom of speech, a series of drastic political and economic reforms, the fight against unemployment, and the resignation of the country’s president. The author Leila Talani notes that the organizers and coordinators of the protests called the population to enter the streets and join the demonstrations through the modern Internet resources such as social networks Facebook, Blackberry Messenger, and Twitter. In this regard, the Egyptian authorities decided not only to block access to the global network, but also SMS services were disconnected for the suppression of mass demonstrations. The only means of conveying information was a telephone service, which, in turn, was auditioned by the security agencies. Besides, demonstrators gathered and coordinated their activities in the mosques.

Despite all the efforts put by the government, the mass protests continued to spread in Egypt, and on January 28, they escalated into riots, looting, and violent resistance to the police. Moreover, the protesters attacked police stations and torched the government buildings with the headquarters of the ruling party. The government enforced violent actions against the protesters, and the number of victims grew. Thousands of prisoners escaped from the prisons. Marauders tried to crush the valuable collections of Egyptian antiquities in the Cairo Egyptian Museum. Tragic events developed so rapidly that soon the authorities partially lost control over the city. To calm the raging crowd in Cairo and several other cities, the soldiers arrived who secured the main governmental and non-residential buildings. In addition, they imposed a curfew. However, all these actions could not stop the enraged population.

Uprisings in the Arab world and, in particular, in Egypt, were a shock to the entire world community. According to the authors Ismael Jacqueline and Ismael Shereen, such a reaction was most likely associated not only with the fact that the Arab countries were safe and no one expected them to unrest, but with the swiftness of the demonstrations, which spread to the entire region. It is connected with economic, social, and political contradictions in the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Arab countries are all well-known for their non-replaceable and long-lived presidents. Egypt was among these countries with the extended rule of the former president Hosni Mubarak for 30 years. Moreover, Hosni Mubarak failed to achieve the loyalty of the citizens during such a long period (Lesch and Haas 35). However, he on the contrary, caused irritation within the population as the majority of the problems that existed in the Egyptian society were linked to his inability as the head to the effective management of the country. Nevertheless, the authors David Lesch and Mark Haas state that people should not forget that during the ruling of Hosni Mubarak, Egyptian tourism flourished, a huge number of Western investments were attracted, and Egypt became a well-deserved place of the leading Arab state. In the first years of Mubarak’s presidency, he corrected mistakes of his predecessor Sadat. First, the new president began to take measures concerned with the liberalization of public life reviewing relations with the opposition. Several hundred opposition activists were released from the prison. The opposition parties obtained the right of representation in the parliament as well as the opportunity to express their ideas and opinions in their newspapers. In addition, the former Egyptian President did not forget about the international situation, where the country was in conflict with the neighboring states of the Arab world, Western Europe, and the socialist camp. During Mubarak’s presidency, the position of the country on the international arena improved significantly. In 1989, Egypt was restored as a member of the Arab League, from which it was expelled for signing a peace treaty with Israel. The country also resumed diplomatic relations with all Arab countries. Thus, by the end of the 80s, Hosni Mubarak had managed to release the country from the isolation in the region.

The former president made considerable progress in the economic area mainly due to the development of the tourism industry. The author Peter Jones mentions that attracting a large number of tourists, who during Mubarak’s rule increased by several times, contributed to the country’s GDP. The former head of the republic also tried to attract investments in certain sectors of the Egyptian economy highlighting the free trade zone of the national legislation as well as ensuring the inviolability of the foreign capital. GDP increased every year. This fact allowed the former head of the state to develop the infrastructure as well as to solve the problems associated with water shortages. This advanced a variety of projects for the construction of the canal system in order to irrigate the area in Western Sahara as well as the projects for the conversion of a number of oases in the desert into thriving areas suitable for agricultural activities. The administration introduced such initiatives as the food problem was and still remains one of the main problems in the life of Egyptian society. It seems that Mubarak tried to develop the country from all sides. The former president wanted to solve both economic and social problems. Nevertheless, the population did not perceive his attempts as their expectations of fast results, reduced unemployment, and prosperity did not materialize.

Perhaps, the Egyptians would have tolerated old Mubarak who sooner or later would have to leave the post of the president due to his age. However, openly proclaimed ambitions of Mubarak’s sons served one of the main reasons for the uprisings the Egyptian people. Mubarak planned to transfer sovereignty to his sons. This would have implied the continuation of Mubarak’s 30 year course, from which most of the population was tired. Moreover, the author Peter Jones states that every Arab ruler usually builds his scheme of elites, which in varying degrees has more access to the resources, including money and a large number of privileges in the state. Such elites, which should maintain and ensure the political viability of the head of state, lived in Egypt. Therefore, the author mentions that in addition to the expression of weariness and hopelessness, the purpose of the uprisings was the desire to change the existing political elite in the face of Mubarak and his group of politicians and relatives. These groups did not have the sense of proportion being enriched while the people of Egypt did not receive all the necessary services and means of livelihood. The people of the country were against such a situation as well as the opposition movements and parties.

Another problem continuing during the rule of Mubarak and inherent in all the Arab countries was a corrupt system with the core management in the government. According to the author Andrey Korotayev, appalling corruption at all levels of the government delays the beginning and the development of business, especially small and medium. It is the foundation of life of the Arab street, which was in revolt during the Arab Spring. In 2010, in the rank by the level of corruption, Egypt occupied the 118th place among 174 countries. It is a critical indicator that shows the massive scale of the disaster in the country. The author states that unemployment is not less acute problem in Egypt. Young university graduates are faced with the problem of irrelevance and the lack of demand from the part of the state arising from the absence of economic reforms. The author also argues that such a terrible disproportion forces young people to seek different ways of earnings, which in turn meet many obstacles, such as corruption. The well-known German-French expert on the Middle East, Peter Scholl-Latour, says that Mubarak did not make any attempts to counteract the mass unemployment, which particularly strong humiliates a person with a higher education and generally young people who consist one third of the Egyptian society. In the first quarter of 2011, the unemployment rate increased to 11.9% of the total working-age population – more than 26 million people. According to the experts, these rates of unemployment are a consequence of the more important challenges, which was demographic Due to the severe demographic situation in the country, where the annual growth rate is about 1.7%, the economy failed to develop. Thus, Andrey Korotayev affirms that it results in the depletion of the resource base, creates a food problem and in general does not allow improving the standard of living for the population. Cairo, with a population of about 23 million people, faces the problem of failure to provide the population with water and electricity. About 97% of the population is concentrated on the small area in the coastal part of the Nile. Thus, most of the people experience the lack of water resources.

It is an evident fact that the country had a great number of both social and economic problems. It is also worth noting that the rule of Hosni Mubarak caused the improvement of people’s lives. For his long term in power, the former president did much for Egypt to become one of the leading countries in the Arab world. It is obvious that the basic stimuli that caused riots in the country could not be completely eliminated. Nevertheless, with the coming of Mubarak to power, there was a positive dynamics of the increase in GDP of 4.5 times. The president managed to significantly reduce the unemployment rate and put much effort to solve the food problem. However, despite all these positive facts, all dramatic and perhaps transient events that engulfed the Egyptian society could not be called unexpected. The basis for the beginning of the struggle for a better future of the Egyptian population were the following circumstances: a state of emergency that lasted in the country for 30 years, a political elite of the former president that did not allow new political forces in the government, which supported the insurgent population, the lack of democratic freedoms, and an inspiring example of Tunisia, where people managed to change the  regime in a quick and bloodless way.

Discussion

The events that began in Egypt in January 2011 were discussed by the entire world community. Despite the fact that five years have passed since the beginning of the revolution in the country of pyramids, it is still early to discuss certain results because the situation in the country remains volatile and the future of the republic seems rather vague. Nonetheless, some authors try to address the changes that have occurred in the Arab Republic of Egypt that had the greatest influence on the current state of affairs in the country.

Seemingly the peace departure of Hosni Mubarak from power marked the beginning of an era of changes opening a way to a new future full of reforms and democratic transformation, economic prosperity, and social justice for Egypt. However, there are no any significant improvements in the economic or the social level nowadays. On the contrary, the revolution caused damage to the spheres that were the greatest irritants and brought the Egyptian population on the central area of the country. Regarding democratic reforms, the first fair parliamentary and presidential elections in the country, where in both cases Islamists came to power, jeopardized the interests of the non-Islamic part of the population. After the resignation of Hosni Mubarak, a new president, Mohammed Mursi, came into power. However, many people were not satisfied with his policy as he started to divide the Egyptian into men and women, Muslims and Copts and, thus, he was able to question Egyptian democracy in order to degenerate into new more rigid dictatorship – Islamist. In the book Islam and Democracy after the Arab Spring, it is written that “Mursi failed to adequately and effectively demonstrate that ‘the new Egypt’ was a modern and religiously and politically inclusive nation-state where full equality of citizenship exists for all”. Thus, many people were soon dissatisfied with their choice of the president.

In the first years after the revolution, the country experienced numerous cases of corruption. A barrage of criticism and accusations of the attempts to usurp power fell on the activist of the organization Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammed Mursi, who won in the presidential election in June 2012, for the constitutional declaration, which allowed him to issue any decrees serving the revolution. Despite the fact that the president enjoyed the support of the population, people were against such actions, which caused outrage and protests. Considering the fact that the president is not the most important figure in the organization, he did not intend to take any actions, which were not beneficial for the main instigators. Accordingly, such behavior has another explanation. As the situation in the country did not yield to control again, decisive actions to stabilize the situation were necessary. Morsi moved by such thoughts issued a constitutional declaration, and the liberal-minded part of the society considered it as an attempt to revive the dictatorship.

The hasty preparation of the country’s constitution was even a more ill-considered decision in this period. In addition, it provoked more complex situation. It is possible to state that the constitution became highly camouflaged and controversial in some aspects. It proclaims democratic and secular development of Egypt based on the rights and freedoms of all citizens. Nevertheless, it limits the certain groups of people at the same time. For example, people can profess now only Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. In such a way, one may consider that different social aspects were violated in the country.

After such violations and a great decline of the economy, the Egyptian population demanded a new president. In May 2014, they held presidential elections, in which General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi received about 96% of the votes. He became the new president of Egypt. However, his policy did not greatly improve the situation. The president of the country should perform almost an impossible task, which is to withdraw Egypt from the social and economic impasse. After the overthrow of Mohammed Morsi, the military got a country with a shattered economy and political instability. The systemic crisis accumulated for decades and resulted in the events of 2011, when the authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak was overthrown, and the Muslim Brotherhood came to power. For two years, they have managed to destroy the tourism industry, scare off the foreign investors, and eventually ruin the economy. In 2013, the Egyptian military promised to rectify the situation. However, their unreasoned program did not bring many positive results. The emphasis was placed on the ambitious mega-projects such as the construction of the second branch of the Suez Canal and the transfer of the capital Cairo to Eastern (Arabian) Desert. At the beginning, the expansion of the Suez Canal gave the Egyptians a sense of national pride, but the project was to bring the expected dividends. Entrepreneurs complained about the continuing corruption, bureaucratic arbitrariness, and the lack of any economic strategy. Therefore, the tourism industry did not revive.

It should be noted that after the Arab Spring, economy of the country changed greatly. If before the events, the tourism sector occupied an extremely important place in Egypt, after the revolution, everything changed. Traditionally, Egypt sources of hard currency included investment and tourism. However, the situation in these sectors is worsening from year to year after the change of power during the Arab Spring in 2011. Therefore, a black currency market is now thriving in the country regardless of the numerous attempts made by the authorities to deal with this problem. Ismael Jacqueline and Ismael Shereen admit that Ezz Steel, the largest steel producer in the country, received most of the foreign currency through the parallel market. In such a way, even small and large businesses in Egypt are forced to turn to the black market in order to meet the foreign currency needs.

Egypt, which is extremely important for political and economic stability in the Middle East, has been experiencing problems in the recent years. According to Moody’s, the inflow of foreign direct investments in the country is now below the levels of 2006-2010. In the tourism sector, political uncertainty after the uprising in 2011 had a great influence, and the terrorist attacks only exacerbated the situation. According to the Central Bank of the country, Egypt’s foreign exchange reserves decreased by about half – to $ 15.5 billion after the Arab Spring. Cairo agreed with the International Monetary Fund on a three-year loan of $ 12 billion. In addition, the Abu Dhabi Development Fund placed a deposit amounting to $ 1 billion in the Egyptian Central Bank to support the financial condition of the country and national currency. Egypt also negotiates with other organizations, including the World Bank and the African Development Bank, regarding the issue of additional funding in order to cover the budget deficit, which, according to the government estimates, will amount to $ 21 billion over the next three years. It is significant to note that Fitch Ratings analysts estimate Egypt annual funding requirement of about $ 10 billion. According to the World Bank, Egypt’s GDP grew by about 4% in 2016. Nevertheless, it is insignificant for the country, where inflation reached 14% in July, and the unemployment rate exceeds 10% according to the Bureau of Statistics of Egypt. In April, the International Monetary Fund forecasted that inflation in Egypt would decrease from 11% in 2015 to 9.6% this year. Bureau experts declared that amount of tourists in Egypt in July was by 42% less than in July 2015. According to the official statistics, their number declined by about half after the terrorists in October 2015 exploded a Russian plane flying from Sharm El Sheikh. In such a way, the events of the Arab Spring and subsequent terrorist attacks greatly decreased the number of tourists in Egypt though the tourism sector was highly successful in the country before.

Expected extra cash infusions hardly slowed the weakening of the Egyptian pound against the dollar. The Central Bank greatly devalued the national currency. The Egyptian currency weakens largely due to the fact that many economists and ordinary Egyptians are skeptical about the government’s ability to achieve financial goals and implement radical economic reforms. The President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi has recently admitted that this would be a difficult task. According to him, the size of the problem is simply unimaginable. Besides, the responsibility for its solution lies not only on the head of the state but also on the common Egyptians.

Egypt will have to take certain measures in order to improve the situation. Nonetheless, it is expected that the poor and the middle class will oppose such measures and these people constitute the majority of 90 million inhabitants of the country. When a preliminary agreement with the IMF was reached, Egypt also agreed to reduce the national debt and subsidies in the energy sector, introduce a tax on the added value, and move to a floating exchange rate. However, some economists believe that the socio-economic situation in the country will worsen before its improvement due to implementation of such measures. The weakening of the currency, the reduction of subsidies, and tax reforms could lead to higher inflation and interest rates. In turn, it will increase the cost of borrowing for Egypt and even a great influence on the Egyptians. The author Peter Jones explains that the dealers on the black market receive the benefit in this difficult situation. The authorities have closed numerous exchange points to reduce pressure on the national currency, and approved the prison sentences as well as higher fines as a penalty for violation of the foreign exchange controls. Therefore, forced to operate secretly, the dealers sell dollars with a high extra charge.

One of the key economic problems of Egypt refers to the low labor productivity, which is an obstacle to the economic development. It reduces the competitiveness of Egyptian exports and does not allow effectively solving the problem of foreign trade deficit as well as foreign debt. Low productivity and low wages do not allow Egypt to solve another great problem, which is poverty. The country is characterized by a strong social stratification of the society. About 26% of Egypt’s population lives below the poverty line. According to the level of poverty, Egypt is on the 85th place in the world. Along with poverty of the general population, there is a large difference in incomes between the citizens. This fact causes serious social tensions. The World Bank in its report, dedicated to the economy of Egypt and its prospects, pointed to the critical importance of improving the productivity factor for the further development of the Egyptian economy. At the same time, improving productivity will inevitably impact on the level of unemployment in the country. There are about 28.3 million people of the economically active population (Salih 202). The official unemployment rate increases every year. More than a million new job seekers appear on the labor market annually but a small number of jobs is offered.

It should be noted that corruption has become another painful problem of the country after the Arab Spring. Currently, there is the fight against corruption in the country. However, there are still no visible changes in this field. According to the World Bank, decades of inadequate control over Egypt’s huge public sector and ministries institutionalized corruption in the country. Corruption serves as one of the main causes for different economic problems. There is a vivid example with the lack of sugar in the country. In recent weeks, Egypt has experienced an acute shortage of sugar, which is one of the basic products covered by government subsidies. Prior to this, such products as rice, medicines, and vegetable oil were in deficit. Observers attribute this situation to the currency crisis as the country has no money to buy food abroad. The situation is catastrophic and Cairo has already announced the devaluation of the Egyptian pound by 48% (Hadid and Youssef). The Central Bank of Egypt informed the population about the introduction of a floating exchange rate of the pound to ensure monetary and fiscal stability of the state. According to the bank, it will provide the necessary foreign exchange. Egypt produces two million tons of sugar a year. Nevertheless, the country still has to import one million ton to cover the needs of a growing population. 68 from the 92 million Egyptians receive subsidized products (Hadid and Youssef). Nonetheless, there are no dollars left to pay the import. In addition, the IMF demands to reduce subsidies. As a result, sugar prices in recent months have grown rapidly – from 5 pounds to 10 pounds per kilo whereas on the black market – up to 15 pounds. The population is rather dissatisfied because inflation has already reached the level of 14%  (Korotayev 168). Corruption is one of the reasons for the current deficit of products. In Egypt, the subsidized products are sold in small shops, which are under the strict control of the ministry. However, dealers of the shadow economy inflate the prices. The government accuses of corruption even larger confectionery companies that hold sugar in their warehouses to resell it at a higher price. Police report on high-profile operations to arrest the speculators. Recently, 12 tons of sugar has been found as a result of the raid (Hadid and Youssef). It is only one of the operations that have finished successfully and a great number of sugar as well as other products are still not found.

According to numerous analysts, the food situation in Egypt in the near future will only worsen. One of the reasons is the incompetent actions of the government, which has failed to take timely action for the production of sugar in the country and begun to limit the imports. The second reason is the currency crisis, which will also escalate. However, the main cause of the deficit is the overpopulation. It is associated with the fact that the Nile valley is unable to feed so many people. In the early 70th there were about 30 million people in Egypt while currently the population is almost trebled. The residents are concentrated in a narrow strip of land along the Nile. Almost the entire territory of the country is a desert, and there is lack of water for irrigation and domestic purposes. When in 2011, the Islamists destroyed a highly important tourism industry, hundreds of thousands people remained jobless. The local industry is also in stagnation. It is connected with the fact that the foreign investors do not want to go to a country where there is a threat of the Islamist coup.

Exodus of the rural population to the cities continues. It is especially true for the capital of the state, which population has reached 20 million people. In the capital, rural migrants increase the ranks of the urban poor and receive food benefits. Natives of villages are frequently uneducated and impregnated with religious prejudices. They are a breeding ground for Islamists. At the time, they voted for the Muslim Brotherhood, and Mohammed Mursi became their president. The police brutally repress any form of anti-government protests but it cannot last long.

The country continues to receive financial help from different states. Meanwhile, the president has lost the financial support from its Arab sponsors, most notably from Saudi Arabia. Although Egypt continues to get American military aid, the Egyptian-American relations are at a low level. The president hopes that none of the international players is interested in a collapse of the Egyptian state, which would have catastrophic consequences for the entire Middle East.

Conclusion

Arab revolts, uprisings, protests, demonstrations, revolutions, and civil war are terrible events that happened in the Middle East and North Africa, which are known as the Arab Spring. The region has never been considered stable but an abruptly broken revolution became a great surprise to the entire world. January 25, 2011 was the date marking the beginning of  transformation in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Such problems as unemployment, corruption at all levels of the government, the difficult economic situation, the lack of reforms and democratic freedom, as well as the nearly 30-year rule of Hosni Mubarak were the major factors that caused the greatest irritation among the population, which required changes.

For five years, there have been many events that significantly changed the socio-economic and political life of the country. There is no improvement of the social and economic situation in Egypt. On the contrary, the situation has even deteriorated. It is difficult to make predictions about the future of the most populous country in the Arab world. One can only hope that Egypt will form a strong parliament, which will be balanced by the representatives of all the groups from the Egyptian population, with a clear program to save the country from the crisis. Nonetheless, the country’s future is not optimistic at the moment.

The article was written by professional writer Olivia Adamson, more her papers you can find at freshessay writing platfrom.

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